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#746881 - 12/13/11 12:21 PM Re: Introduction and O2 Question [Re: dirtrider]  
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roger 04 rt Online
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Yesterday I pulled the tupperware and exhaust, removed the stock O2 and dropped in the wideband LC-1 O2 sensor. Also scoped out how and where I will locate and connect the LC-1 "computer". It looks like it will fit nicely under the tank strapped to the frame, in front of the ABS. Will add a photo later.

There are multiple grounds to connect. Does anyone have experience with the best location to add ground wires?

Also installing Beemerboneyard metal QDs at this time since the tank is off.

Once installed my plan is:

1) Ride with the O2 sensor function NOT connected to the Motronic to get baseline data ON AFR/Lambda.

2) Attach virtual-narrow-band O2 function with Lambda=1 to verify that it runs correctly and stays Closed Loop as per the stock O2 sensor.

3) Adjust Lambda upward and downward in small steps to measure its effect on warmed-up driveability.

RB



Last edited by roger 04 rt; 12/13/11 12:31 PM.
#746886 - 12/13/11 12:45 PM Re: Introduction and O2 Question [Re: roger 04 rt]  
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dan cata Offline
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Originally Posted By: roger 04 rt

There are multiple grounds to connect. Does anyone have experience with the best location to add ground wires?



Since you are so close to it, why not run it from the battery? If it was further, I usually find the closest screw that bolts into the frame and connect it there, but the battery terminal is the best way to go here, imho.

Dan.

#746892 - 12/13/11 01:05 PM Re: Introduction and O2 Question [Re: dan cata]  
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Originally Posted By: dan cata
Originally Posted By: roger 04 rt

There are multiple grounds to connect. Does anyone have experience with the best location to add ground wires?



Since you are so close to it, why not run it from the battery? If it was further, I usually find the closest screw that bolts into the frame and connect it there, but the battery terminal is the best way to go here, imho.

Dan.


Thanks Dan. That's what I was thinking too so that it is electrically closest to the Motronic ground. The main battery ground seems to go from there to the harness ground (buried in covering) and also to a motor connection under the ABS.

Power (12V) will connect to a key-on lead in the electrical box.

#747791 - 12/17/11 09:59 PM Re: Introduction and O2 Question [Re: roger 04 rt]  
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Yesterday I finished installing the Innovate Motorsports LC-1 Wideband O2 Controller on my 2004 R1150RT. Before describing the project and my first test ride impressions a couple points:

--When the valves are adjusted, idle set and the throttle bodies are balanced my 1150RT runs pretty well.
--My preference is that the motorcycle is as near stock as possible, maintaining EVAP canister and Catalytic converter.
--BMW and Bosch (Motronic, O2 sensor, ABS) design well and know more about these systems than I ever could.
--The aircraft that I flew for a couple decades had three main performance modes: Full Rich (takeoff and climb), Best Power (fastest cruise, AFR< 14) and Best Economy (greatest range, AFR > 15). Although all modes were "smooth", if you over-leaned Best Economy the engine would start to stumble and eventually ping.

--Ethanol fuel: The 2004 RT uses Open Loop fueling tables that were designed for gasoline with a stoichiometric AFR of 14.7:1. In the Northeast US, gasoline with up to 10% ethanol is about all that's available, which has a 14.1:1 AFR. This suggests that the stock Open Loop fueling tables run about 4% leaner than the BMW/Bosch designers planned for. (In Closed Loop operation when the O2 sensor is used for control it automatically corrects for the E10 fuel.)

--My '04 RT feels strong while the engine is cold. After warming up, the motor seems reigned-in a bit from 2,000 rpm to 4,000 rpm (and reminds me a lot of how my plane felt with a too-lean mixture). After warming up the Motronic allows Closed Loop operation with the O2 sensor which means the AFR (in gasoline terms) is toggling between an AFR in the low 14s to an AFR in the low 15s. And since the cylinders are independent of one another, one cylinder is bound to be even leaner than the other.

My project goals:
1) Open Loop: Richen fueling tables to compensate for gasoline with Ethanol added. For this I've used a BoosterPlug which claims 6% richer mixtures; and ethanol fuel is about 4% leaner so I'm guessing about a 2% gain richer mixture overall.)

2) Closed Loop: Richen the stoichiometric target by the smallest amount needed to remove the sense of leanness between 2,000 and 4000 rpm. The Innovate Motorsports LC-1 provides a programmable Narrow Band output to the bike's Motronic ECU input.

Project:
LC-1 Kit: Bosch Wideband O2 sensor, LC-1 Controller, Cables, Programming Software, Serial Bus programming input.
Also purchased: PC Serial Bus to USB Converter (since none of my computers have serial inputs)

1. Pull the fairings, remove the fuel tank (replaced QDs at same time).
2. Drop the exhaust, remove stock Narrow Band O2 sensor, install Wideband O2 sensor.
3. Install LC-1 controller on right side of bike, under tank on frame, near alternator.
4. Connect Wideband O2 to LC-1, routing cable using same path as stock O2 sensor.
5. Route LC-1 cables to left-hand side of bike, along frame, and make connections to power, ground, AFR meter (part of LC-1).
6. Route LC-1 programming cables to area under seat behind electrical box.
7. Connect LC-1 Narrow Band output to Motronic by cutting and splicing into the original O2 sensor leads.
8. Leave O2 heater wires connected to the stock Narrow Band sensor, temporarily, until I can figure out what the Motronic needs to "see" in order to enable Closed Loop and not create a fault code. Tie wrap O2 sensor to frame.
9. Program closed loop AFR target to 14.2 which was a guess about where to start.
10. Start the motorcycle, attach the GS-911, let it warm up, confirm Closed Loop operation and make sure there were no Fault Codes in the Motronic. EVERYTHING WORKED! (Photo below shows #1) AFR switch points, and #2) that the bike entered Closed Loop after warming up.)

The installation took about 6 hours spread over a few days. Someone experience could do it faster but it was the first time I'd pulled the tank and exhaust. I got out for a test ride late yesterday.

Riding Impressions:
The course was over winding, hilly, straight and flat roads for about an hour. I am truly excited by the first results. Knowing that I'm looking for a positive outcome I wouldn't blame you for being skeptical. I haven't collected data yet to back up my impressions. But I'm not selling anything, just trying to enjoy my bike more. Here are some observations.

--No hesitation, no feeling of being reigned-in or surging. No popping, pinging or backfiring. In brief, no negatives.
--Very smooth acceleration in every gear at high and low RPMs.
--Good roll on throttle response at high and low RPMs.
--Very good cruise at low RPMs (2,500 to 4,000). 5th gear was a pleasure at 40 MPH or so. 6th gear, from memory, was easy at 50.
--Smooth at high RPMs.
--Warmed-up bike using Closed Loop modes feels just like the cold engine--strong and smooth.

Still to be done:
--Clean up wiring
--Figure out what to do about Motronic heater wires (cut or add a resistor)
--Try many more combinations of Closed Loop AFR settings
--Carefully monitor Motronic operation with GS-911 (no error codes so far)
--Get an exhaust gas analysis after settling on an AFR.

I'm not sure how much I can get done before the snow starts here in MA. When it does start snowing, the bike will get opened up for a spline lube.



#747795 - 12/17/11 10:54 PM Re: Introduction and O2 Question [Re: roger 04 rt]  
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dan cata Offline
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Nice work, Roger wink

As for the heating wires, AFAIK, the motronic calculates the time since the engine was started and until it gets info from the O2 sensor, this meaning that it has reached the working temp, being heated by the resistor inside the O2 sensor. If that time amount is > than a predefined value, it will raise an error about the O2 sensor being bad. Not sure if this affects your current setup but you might want to consider this.

Dan.

#747830 - 12/18/11 02:22 AM Re: Introduction and O2 Question [Re: dan cata]  
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Originally Posted By: dan cata
Nice work, Roger wink

As for the heating wires, AFAIK, the motronic calculates the time since the engine was started and until it gets info from the O2 sensor, this meaning that it has reached the working temp, being heated by the resistor inside the O2 sensor. If that time amount is > than a predefined value, it will raise an error about the O2 sensor being bad. Not sure if this affects your current setup but you might want to consider this.

Dan.


Dan thanks. The LC-1 is pretty fast. Maybe 20 sec. So I should be able to cut the wires and remove the sensor. How did you figure that out?

RB

#748324 - 12/20/11 03:00 AM Re: Introduction and O2 Question [Re: roger 04 rt]  
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Over the last two days I've put a few hours on the bike. I have to say, that the slight downward shift of Closed Loop Lambda (AFR) from 1.000 to 0.965, has made a remarkable change in smoothness and low-end power. There has not been any sense of hesitation, in fact quite the opposite. I'm now running RPMs between 2500 and 3500 around town, even in 5th gear.

As far as the Motronic ECU is concerned the data looks like this:

Total data points: 4,000
Percent Closed Loop: 45% (same as before for the local conditions)
Average Closed Loop Lambda Voltage: 410 mV (right where expected, indicating good loop closing)

The new shift plots are looking the same as the earlier stock sensor plots. The big difference being the improved performance and the AFR meter reading 14.2:1 +/-. The above also indicates that the Motronic has been "convinced" to accept the programmable O2 setting and doesn't know that I've richened Closed Loop Lambda.

The next tests will be on the highway.

There are several variables still to be tuned:

High Lambda Voltage: (800 mV to 1V)
Low Lambda Voltage: (0V to 200mV)
Low Lambda Value: (how far below the 0.965 mid-point)
High Lambda Value: (how much above the 0.965 mid-point)
Target Lambda: (is there a better target that 0.965, implied AFR 14.2)

Filter Sensor inputs?
Monitor Sensor waveform.

In spite of what needs to be evaluated still, it looks to me like a slightly lower Lambda target (richer AFR) makes a MUCH smoother bike.

Will post up some charts later.

#748403 - 12/20/11 03:36 PM Re: Introduction and O2 Question [Re: roger 04 rt]  
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Here are some plots of several thousand data points acquired while running at 14.2 Air Fuel Ratio (AFR). The key observation is that the Motronic is operating normally, unaware that it has been spoofed to run at Lambda=0.965 which is an equivalent gasoline AFR of 14.2.

This an acceleration through a couple of gears with a warm engine. Notice that just like the earlier chart (a few posts back), the Motronic goes into closed loop while the RPM is accelerating. The Motronic doesn't know the Closed Loop AFR is 14.2, but for the rider (me) the engine feels much stronger and smoother because the AFR is richer.




The next two charts show a before (14.7 AFR with Stock Narrow Band O2 Sensor) and after (14.2 AFR with Wideband O2 Sensor and LC-1 connected to the Motronic in place of the Stock Sensor). Although the shapes of the curves are different due to how I have set up the hi/low transitions (something I will continue to experiment with) the key takeaway is that the Mean (average) and Median voltages are nearly identical (about 20 mV different). This suggests that the Motronic is controlling Closed Loop operation and is satisfied that it is in charge, producing the same average Lambda in Closed Loop.

Stock O2 Sensor


Wideband O2 Sensor


Next I will get some highway riding time in.

#749438 - 12/26/11 03:30 PM Re: Introduction and O2 Question [Re: roger 04 rt]  
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For those interested in the most arcane aspects of this project or who might offer some insight:

--Both the heater and the sensor are isolated from the case (meaning they are not grounded to the exhaust). It is a 4-wire sensor.

--The wire called signal ground seems to have a 100 ohm source impedance (more to be confirmed), and the open circuit voltage is 140 mV. Since the sensor is isolated from the case, this strongly suggests that the entire sensor signal is offset by 140 mV. I have read that the reason for this offset is to allow shorted and open leads to be detected by the ECU--makes sense. Right now I may have the +Signal going negative relative to the -Signal.

--I have also read that the ECU builds closed loop adaption tables so I should be doing a full reset of the ECU each time I change an LC-1 parameter.

--This signal + side seems, from research, to be routed to a dual comparator circuit that creates a +/- 25mV hysteresis window.

Although things are working really well, I am not convinced I am getting a good rich/lean toggle yet so I will probably go and get an oscilloscope so that I can look into all this with a bit more certainty.

Last edited by roger 04 rt; 12/26/11 03:39 PM.
#749450 - 12/26/11 04:41 PM Re: Introduction and O2 Question [Re: roger 04 rt]  
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dirtrider Offline
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Morning Roger

All 2/3/4 wire 02 sensors I have ever worked with use an isolated ground for both the heater element & sensor low. The exhaust system hasn't been used for 02 low (or grounding) since the old single wire 02's of the 70's. (it never worked real good as rusty exhaust system parts caused low side resistance issues)

I'm not sure what you are measuring on the sensor low but keep in mind there should be a very low current (@ around .45-.5 volt) output across the (stock) sensor all the time. The fueling computer uses that as a indication of when the sensor is ready to allow closed loop operation. When the fueling computer sees that constant return voltage it knows the 02 isn't producing it's own voltage yet. Seeing as the 02 never stays at a constant .45-.5 volts output when the fueling computer sees the 02 voltage rise or fall off of that .45-.5 volts it knows the 02 is hot enough to use it's output signal.

That is kind of strange 02 signal your graph shows, where are you trapping that signal at?

I would sure like to see the Motronic fueling command vs that 02 output signal.


D.R. ___
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